Examination of plant to extract DNA

A Guide To Cellular Extraction

4.5 Min Read

Cellular extraction is a fundamental process in the field of biotechnology that involves the isolation and purification of biomolecules from living cells. This process is essential for many biotechnological applications such as drug discovery, gene therapy, and biopharmaceutical production.

What is Cellular Extraction?

Cellular Extraction is one of the unique and essential ways to bio-mimic the movement present in phyto-compounds of the plant and then turn it into the liquid matrix by making it work with the other ingredients. In order to perform cellular extraction it is important to be in a pressurized and air-less environment where the osmolarity is more.

This helps in creating equilibrium between the cell present in the plant and also the extract present in the environment. After permeating into the cell membrane, the water-soluble molecule is diffused into the water and glycerin which is known as hydrating liquid matrix.

There are two main approaches to cellular extraction: mechanical disruption and chemical disruption.

Mechanical disruption involves physically breaking open the cell membrane through grinding, homogenization, sonication, or other mechanical methods. These techniques are commonly used for larger cells and organisms, such as animal and plant tissues.

Chemical disruption, on the other hand, uses chemical agents to dissolve or solubilize the cell membrane. This approach is typically used for smaller cells and microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast.

The choice of extraction method depends on the nature of the biomolecules being extracted, the type of cell or organism used, and the downstream applications.

Cellular extraction is also used in the production of vaccines. Many vaccines are produced using live attenuated or inactivated viruses. To produce these vaccines, the viruses are grown in cell cultures and then extracted from the cells using a variety of methods.

What is the purpose of Cellular Extraction?

Cellular extraction is also used in the production of vaccines. Many vaccines are produced using live attenuated or inactivated viruses. To produce these vaccines, the viruses are grown in cell cultures and then extracted from the cells using a variety of methods.

In addition to these biopharmaceutical applications, cellular extraction is also used in research to study the function and structure of biomolecules. For example, the study of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions, often involves extracting the enzymes from cells and studying their properties.

Cellular extraction is also used in genetic research to study DNA and RNA. DNA and RNA are extracted from cells using various techniques and then analyzed to understand their structure and function. This research is essential for understanding genetic diseases and developing new therapies for these conditions.

What is the procedure for Cellular Extraction?

Plant DNA in the Test Tube

  • The plant cells are broken so that the cellular constituent present in them are obtained easily. This is done by grinding the tissue into dry ice or liquid nitrogen The grinding is usually done with the help of a food processor or either mortar or pestle.
  • The cell membrane of the plant must be disrupted in order to release the DNA into the extraction buffer. This is done by using a detergent like Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) or Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).
  • It is important to protect the plant's DNA from its endogenous nucleases. The detergents like EDTA are purposely used which works as a chelating agent and helps in binding the magnesium ions together. It is one of the important cofactors for the nucleus.
  • After that, the mixture is emulsified into the chloroform or phenol which helps separate the proteins from DNA.
  • This way the DNA from the plant is obtained and it is then preserved really carefully for other medical and cosmetic purposes.

How Cellular Extraction is useful in Cosmetic Products?

Cellular Extraction from plants can easily penetrate the skin which helps in repairing and healing the skin. This helps in encouraging the hydrophilic nutrients of the serums filled with active ingredients like AHAs and BHAs, Vitamin C, or antioxidants.

Take Aways

Overall, cellular extraction is a critical process in biotechnology and biomedical research. It allows scientists to isolate and study biomolecules, and to produce biopharmaceuticals and other products that are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. As new technologies and methods for cellular extraction continue to emerge, the field of biotechnology will continue to advance and improve the lives of people around the world.


Q: What is cellular extraction?

A:  Cellular extraction is the process of isolating and purifying specific components or molecules from cells, such as proteins, nucleic acids, or lipids. This process can involve a variety of techniques, including mechanical disruption, chemical lysis, and chromatography.

Q: What are the applications of cellular extraction?

A:  Cellular extraction is used in a wide range of fields, including biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical research. Some common applications include protein purification for drug development, isolation of DNA and RNA for genetic studies, and lipid extraction for nutritional analysis.

Q: What are some common techniques used in cellular extraction?

A:  Some common techniques used in cellular extraction include homogenization, sonication, centrifugation, and chromatography. These methods are used to break open cells, isolate specific components, and remove impurities.

Q: What factors can affect the success of cellular extraction?

A:  The success of cellular extraction can be affected by a number of factors, including the type of cell being extracted, the purity and concentration of the desired component, and the presence of interfering substances. Other factors that can impact extraction success include the type and concentration of extraction buffer, the duration and intensity of mechanical disruption, and the efficiency of downstream purification steps.

Q: What is the purpose of Active Ingredients?

A:  Simply explaining active ingredients ( AHAs and BHAs, Vitamin C, etc) present in the skincare products are simply helpful in targeting skin concerns. These ingredients help in reducing hyperpigmentation, fine lines, acne scars, and other damage caused by the sun.

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